What is PBM Photobiomodulation?
Photobiomodulation (PBM) modulates human tissue in any organ by the use of red or near-infrared light. This is delivered to stimulate, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured or is degenerating or else is at risk of dying. It helps to heal damaged or dying cells through the Rejuvenation of mitochondrion. It helps to rejuvenate any organ systems of the human body that is highly essential for life including optimal functioning of the brain.
The brain suffers from many different disorders classified into three broad categories :
1. Traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia),
2. Degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s), and
3. Psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder). There is some evidence that all these seemingly diverse conditions can be benefited by applying light to the head. The research has shown that PBM can be used for cognitive enhancement in normal healthy people. In this transcranial PBM (tPBM) application, near-infrared (NIR) light is often applied to the head with better penetration. It requires 30 minutes sessions.
Cytochrome C oxidase (CCO, also known as complex IV) is a specific structure in mitochondria that ACTS as a photon receptor and thus plays a great role in modulating PBM effect. PBM prevents respiratory inhibition from stress. When a cell is exposed to stress, oxidative molecule nitric oxide (NO) is produced and inhibits 02 uptakes by mitochondrion. The light treatment rejuvenates the cells by isolating nitric oxide (NO) and reversing the shift of oxygen in cytochrome C oxidase. This triggers transcription factors that alter gene expression levels. The binding of nitric oxide (NO) to copper (or heme) centers in the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) inhibits cell respiration.
But cytochrome C oxidase, which absorbs red or near-infrared (NIR) light, dissociates nitric oxide, restoring oxygen, increasing cellular respiration, and forming adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This triggers a cascade of intracellular reactions involving nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cyclic adenosine phosphate (cAMP) that produce beneficial effects of PBM.